Archive for December, 2011

Dec 30 2011

Integrated Water Conservation of Merdada Lake, Dieng Plateau, Central Java

Published by under Community Empowerment

Merdada Lake is situated in the area of Dieng plateau which is administratively located in Karang Tengah village, Batur district, Banjarnegara regency, Central Java province. The lake covers around 75 ha of catchment area and 22 ha of inundated area to accommodate 518,520 m³ of water. This lake played an important role as water resource used for agriculture activities around the lake as well as to support the ecology and ecosystem of the area. Even though the catchment area is relatively small, the lake has never run out of water despite its continuous use for irrigation of wide horticulture activities, especially the potato farms.

Merdada Lake

The lake is mostly used for farm irrigation while partly is still in the forms of forest and bushes. The farm covers 44 ha of land, while the rest 11 ha is still forest and bushes. Because of its significant potential and role of the water resources in the community’s economy, the government should pay attention to the lake.

Water Use in Telaga Merdada Lake for Farming

In 2010, a collaborative program was conducted by the Office of Serayu-Opak River Basin Development (BBWS.SO) and Center of Agro-ecology UGM by building water tower, stoning the terrace, and planting the conservation plants. The water tower was built to reduce the cost of water for irrigation, while the stoning and planting activities aimed to reduce the land erosion and sedimentation as well as to protect the water by optimizing the infiltration and reducing the surface runoff. The program involved the farmers around the lake who acted to be the executors. Prior to the program, dissemination was conducted to get input from the community so that the program meets what they needed.

Socialization of Integrated Water Conservation Program

In this integrated conservation program, the improvement was also applied to the drainage channel and the drop structure. A good quality drainage system was able to reduce the land erosion and optimize the land utility as well as reduce the unused water. The improvement of the drop structure aimed to optimize the drop structure and to reduce the impact of energy resulted by the water current which was potential for causing erosion.

Sketch of Terrace and Drop Structure Strengthening

According to the plan, the tower functioning as water container was placed in the highest point in the area. The utility of tower instead of water container allowed easier provision and relocation to the ideal spot. The two water towers with capacity of 1500 liter (total 3000 liter) were connected to one pipe lining to the pump and several output pipes for water distribution to the land.

Water Tower and Irrigation Pipe

The improvement and strengthening of the terrace were conducted by improving its physical structure and placing stones to strengthen the front part of the terrace. The same rules were applied also in the improvement and strengthening of drainage channel (SPA) and drop structure. The terrace was planned to be 1 meter tall, but in the execution it was adjusted to the condition due to the various horizontal condition of the interval.

Terrace Strengthening

The conservation plants were planted in the area of 2-3 ha at the edge part of the farm land with 6 meter interval as planned. The conservation plants were expected to be able to improve the covering ability of permanent vegetations onto the land and the water.

Handover and Planting of Conservation Plants

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Dec 30 2011

Integrated Land and Water Resources Conservation Program in Upstream Area of Serayu Watershed

Published by under Community Empowerment

Map of Upstream Area of Serayu Watershed

The upstream area of the Serayu watershed situated around the Dieng Plateau was in danger of degradation due to the land over-exploitation for agriculture. The uneven land topography with steep slopes increased the potential damage of the watershed. In addition, the watershed sedimentation level was also high due to the erosion and landslide along the river line. Dealing with this situation, the Directory of Water Resources of the Minsitry of Public Works via the Office of Serayu-Opak River Basin Development (BBWS.SO) in collaboration with the Department of Agricultural Engineering, the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering Technology UGM, designed an integrated conservation program. The program was conducted by constructing buildings to control the sediment, gully plug; planting conservation plants and strengthening of river channel; and repairing the water facilities and infrastructure. The program used demonstration plots by involving the local community. The program took place in Patak Banteng Village, Kejajar District, Wonosobo Regency, which was geographically included in the upstream area of Serayu watershed.

Socialization of the Program

The establishment of the demonstration plots involved the local community through the local government and local groups. The community played the role as the executor, maintainer, and beneficiary of the plots, whether direct or indirect, while the government through the Office of Serayu-Opak River Basin Development (BBWS-SO) acted as the provider of the facilities and materials. Meanwhile, the academic institution (UGM) played the role in giving guidance, supervision, and assistance to the program, as well as conducting dissemination, socio-economic survey, improvement of awareness and the community’s role in the conservation program, design production, and evaluation.

Gully Plug

The gully plug design of stone-pair used the shape of dam consisting of mica floors, crest weir, stilling basin, and wings. The front floor of the dam functioned as protection for the building from the piping effect which might erode the building base. The crest weir was in the shape of ogee equipped with streamline effect which allows water to move following the shape of the crest weir; thus, it would not damage the building as it was elevated in accordance with the desired depth of the tunnel. Meanwhile, the stilling basin was built a bit deeper and functioned as the building foundation. The upstream part was elevated to be equal with the tunnel base to avoid erosion caused by the water. The wing parts were built to direct the water and prevent it from flowing to the sides of the building.

Sediment Control Building in Shape of Gabions Construction

The Sediment Control Building (BPS) was in the shape of gabions construction, equipped with fibers of palm tree in the front part of the crest weir.  The building was designed in such a way that it looked like a dam consisting of crest weir, stilling basin, and gabion construction wings. The crest weir part was equipped with fibers of palm tree to elevate the water surface to be as high as the crest weir, so the farmers could easily access the water. For the sake of security, the upstream part was given a pile of gabions to avoid erosion caused by the water. The gabions construction wings in the upstream and downstream parts were made to be leaning horizontally to direct the water not to flow through the sides of the The gabions construction as it might endanger the building stability. The pile of the The gabions construction was built alternately to create strong bound.

Planting of Conservation Plant

The conservation plant, pines—as chosen by the community, were placed along the watershed in the BPS location, Gully Plug, and the springs.

Improvement of Sanitation Facilities

The improvement of sanitation facilities included the building of clean water resources, bath container, squat closet, clean and dirty water pipes, septic tank, and absorption well. The establishment of demonstration plot for water resources conservation in general received positive responses from the community. For example, the water in the gully plug was used by the community to irrigate the potato farms. In addition, the sanitation facilities and access to clean water were also directly used by the community.

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